Dump Trucks are trucks used for carrying free material such as dirt, sand, or gravel for construction. Dump trucks are commonly suited with an open-boxed bed operated hydraulically and hinged at the rear, and the front of the cargo hold can lift up so that the contents or cargo can be dropped behind the truck on the work site. Tipper, tipper lorry and tip truck are common names in the United Kingdom and Australia for the road vehicle but the off-road truck stays the same.
Standard Dump Truck is the chassis of a truck with the body of a dumper fixed to the frame. The bed is lifted by a hydraulic ram fixed under the front of the body of the dumper between the frames, and the back of the bed is hinged at the back of the truck. The tailgate can be made to swing open on hinges or it can be situated as a high-lift tailgate format where the pneumatic rams lift the gate open and up above the dump body.
Transfer Dumper is a typical dump truck that pulls a separate trailer which can also be filled with loose loads such as gravel, sand, snow, wood chips, asphalt, klinkers, triple mix, etc.)
Truck and Pup is very similar to a transfer dumper. It consists of a standard dump truck pulling a dump trailer. The pup trailer, unlike the transfer, has its own hydraulic ram and is capable of self-unloading.
A semi end dump is a tractor-trailer where the trailer has a hydraulic hoist. A classical semi end dump has a 3-axle tractor trailing a 2-axle semi-trailer. The semi end dump’s main capacity and function is its unloading speed which is very quickly achieved. On the other hand, they are not very stable when hoisted into the dump position which limits their ability and application where the dump site is offset, unstable or uneven.
A semi bottom dump is notable for its clam shell style dumping gate at the belly of the trailer. It is a 3-axle tractor that pulls a 2-axle trailer. The semi bottom dump is known for and in principally used for its ability to lay the load in a line or wind row. Moreover the semi bottom dump is functional in reverse which makes it unique from the double and triple trailers. These trailers can be the windrow style that open right and left or can be designed to open from front to rear called the cross-spread type. The cross spread style spreads loose loads, like gravel, evenly the width of the trailer whereas the windrow gate leaves a pile in a heap just below the gates. The cross spread style is dysfunctional with larger materials and tends to jam.
Side dump trucks use a 3-axle tractor system pulling a 2-axle semi-trailer. The side dump truck uses hydraulic rams which lean the dump body onto one of its sides, and spills the loose load to either the left or right side of the dump truck trailer. Side dumps are known for their timely unloading and its ability to carry heavy weights. Moreover, it is next to impossible to overturn or tip the dump truck while dumping its load unless in fact the dumping is stopped prematurely or during the dump. Off-road dump trucks are associated more with heavy construction equipment and engineering vehicles than highway dump trucks. Off-road dump trucks are only used off-road for big loads of dirt and mining. Off-road dump trucks come as either a rigid frame dumper or as an articulating frame dumper.
Bottom Dumpers generally refers to a trailer that unloads its payload by opening two clam shell doors just beneath the load space. In some cases, one tractor-trailer may pull several road trains.